Periodontology is the branch of dentistry which treats the diseases and conditions of the gums, the periodontal tissues and the supporting structures of the teeth. The periodontal diseases lead to the shrinkage of the gums, which can cause the losing of the teeth and other severe complications on the long term.
INFLAMMATORY GUM DISEASES
The main reason for the development and persistence of the inflammatory gum disease is the accumulation bacteria due to smoking or not maintaining a proper oral hygiene. Usually inflammatory pockets develop around the teeth in the gums of the affected area.
The first step in the treatment of this disease is to eliminate the inflammation and to clean these pockets (curettage). After performing the curettage the inflammation usually disappears in 1-2 weeks and the soft tissues regenerate.
After a severe long lasting inflammatory disease it is usually not enough to eliminate the inflammation. The soft tissues and the bone damaged during the inflammation needs to be restored with a minor surgical procedure.
NON-INFLAMMATORY GUM DISEASE
The non-inflammatory gum shrinkage usually develops after a long persisting mechanical trauma. This could be an improper toothbrushing technique, abnormal contact between teeth, or due to a masticatory overload caused by extremely powerful chewing.
In case of a very severe damage to the tissues they may lose the ability to regenerate and a reconstructive surgery could be necessary. This procedure could mean a long-lasting solution for the patient only accompanied by minor discomfort for a few days caused by the sensitivity after the surgery and by exhaustion of the muscles due to the length of keeping the mouth open.